To normalize BP
Preventions of Hypertension associated Complications
To ensure the normal quality of life is not affected
- Lose weight, if overweight
- Limit or stop alcohol intake
- Increase physical activity
- Reduce salt intake
- Stop smoking
- Limit intake of foods rich in fats and cholesterol
The drugs which lower the blood pressure are called as antihypertensive drugs.
Classes of drugs used to lower blood pressure
Following are the five main classes of medicines that are used to lower blood pressure:
Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARB)
This class of drugs prevent angiotensin II from binding to the angiotensin II receptors AT I and AT II on blood vessels and other tissues.
Angiotensin II is a very potent chemical that causes the muscles surrounding blood vessels to contract, thereby narrowing the blood vessels. Narrowing of blood vessels increases the pressure within the blood vessels and may lead to high blood pressure (hypertension). Reducing the binding and activity of angiotensin II leads to widening (dilation) of blood vessels and reduces blood pressure.
E.g. Losartan, Telmisartan, Olmesartan, AZILSARTAN etc.
Angiotensin-Converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
ACE Inhibitors block the conversion of Angiotensinogen into Angiotensin I and II. Angiotensin II has property to narrow (constrict) blood vessels by attaching to Angiotensin Receptors present on the blood vessel. Therefore, less of this chemical causes the blood vessels to relax and widen, and so the pressure of blood within the blood vessels is reduced.
Eg. Lisinopril, Enalapril, Captopril etc
Calcium is responsible for the contraction of smooth muscles present on blood vessels. When extracellular calcium enters into the cell it leads to contraction of smooth muscles which leads to narrowing of the lumen.
Calcium-channel blockers (CCB) block the entry of calcium into the vascular smooth muscle cells. As a result, there is no contraction in the vessels. This has a relaxing effect on the blood vessels.
Examples: Amlodipine, Cilnidipine, BENIDIPINE.
β-Blocker are a class of drugs that target the beta receptor. Beta receptors are found on cells of the heart muscles, smooth muscles, airways, arteries, kidneys, and other tissues that are part of the sympathetic nervous system. Sympathetic Beta Receptors are responsible for stress responses, especially when they are stimulated by epinephrine (adrenaline).
β-Adrenergic receptor stimulation causes an increase in heart rate, heart muscle contraction and blood pressure.
Beta blockers block the Beta receptors so that epinephrine may not be able to show its action. In heart this helps in reduction of Heart Rate and thereby Blood Pressure.
As beta blockers reduce heart rate, they might also reduce the oxygen need of the heart and can be beneficial in Ischemia.
Examples: Atenolol, Metoprolol, S- METOPROLOL, Carvedilol
Diuretics work by increasing the amount of salt and fluid that passes out in urine. This has some effect on reducing the fluid in the circulation, which reduces blood pressure. They may also have a relaxing effect on the blood vessels.
Examples: Thiazides or thiazide-like diuretics. CHLORTHALIDONE