Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycaemia (high blood sugar levels) resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.
The chronic hyperglycaemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction and failure of various organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels.
Several pathogenic processes are involved in the development of diabetes. These range from autoimmune destruction of the β-cells of the pancreas with consequent insulin deficiency to abnormalities that result in resistance to insulin action.
The basis of the abnormalities in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in diabetes is deficient action of insulin on target tissues.
Deficient insulin action results from inadequate insulin secretion and/or diminished tissue responses to insulin at one or more points in the complex pathways of hormone action.
Impairment of insulin secretion and defects in insulin action frequently coexist in the same patient, and it is often unclear which abnormality, if either alone, is the primary cause of the hyperglycaemia.
Long-term complications of diabetes include
Retinopathy with potential loss of vision;
Nephropathy leading to renal failure;
Peripheral neuropathy with risk of foot ulcers, amputations,
Autonomic neuropathy causing gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and cardiovascular symptoms and sexual dysfunction.
Increased incidence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular, peripheral arterial, and cerebrovascular disease
Hypertension and abnormalities of lipoprotein metabolism
|Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM)||Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM)||Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)|
|It is also known as Juvenile Diabetes or Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM). In this type of diabetes, the pancreas do not produce insulin, and the person has to take insulin through injections or external sources.||It is also called Adult Onset Diabetes or Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM)In this type of Diabetes, the pancreas secrete some insulin but the cells can’t use it very well.||GDM is a condition in which women without previously diagnosed diabetes exhibit high blood glucose levels during pregnancy (especially during third trimester of pregnancy).|
There are several factors which make some people more likely to develop diabetes, like:
- Hereditary factors (family history of diabetes).
- Unhealthy eating pattern (too much fried fatty; calorie dense food; low fruits & vegetable intake).
- Sedentary lifestyle (little/no physical activity).
- Being Overweight/Obese.
- Increased thirst
- Frequent urination
- Dry mouth
- Unexplained weight loss
- Blurred vision
- Loss of consciousness (a life threatening condition known as ‘ketoacidosis’).
- Delayed wound healing